Technical and Application Notes

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Technical Notes and Papers

Please see below for a partial listing of successful LT-NIR Application Studies. You can use the drop-down menu to narrow down by industry. You can request additional information, including the full study, by clicking the link next to the study.

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Polymorphic Phase Determination - Request Additional Information

"Many pharmaceutical compounds exhibit polymorphism, or the ability to have multiple structures. These are important both from a functional and legal standpoint: Different crystal phases can have different physical properties such as solubility. Additionally, drug patents may be for only one particular phase. Consequently, the ability to discriminate between different polymorphs is a high-value measurement for pharmaceutical manufacturers. In this study, the ability of LT-NIR to distinguish between two polymorphs of Sertaline HCL is demonstrated. The rapid, nondestructive measurement of chemical bonds allows for easy discrimination as crystalline structure differences influence NIR spectra."

Pharmaceutical Raw Material ID - Request Additional Information

"Raw Material Identification is a critical component of quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. A well executed raw material testing program reduces waste and out-of-spec product and identifies counterfeits as well as helps meet the requirements of GMP facilities. However, traditional test methods such as chromatography can take hours and require sample preparation and trained chemists. LT-NIR analysis offers several advantages in materials identification and qualification. It is rapid, non-destructive and day-to-day testing can be carried out by unskilled personnell due to the simple operating procedure. In this LT-NIR is used to identify pharmaceutical raw materials. Furthermore, the ability of LT-NIR to detect material properties is also illustrated."

API Powder Composition - Request Additional Information

"In the pharmaceutical industry, quality testing is critical to ensuring in-specification products. The ability to rapidly analyze powders for concentrations of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API’s), and other constituents can improve efficiency of testing and reduce reject batches. In this study, the applicability of LT-NIR to pharmaceitucal powder analysis was studied. LT-NIR analysis offers several advantages in materials identification and qualification. It is rapid, non-destructive and day-to-day testing can be carried out by unskilled personnell due to the simple operating procedure. In this study, LT-NIR is used to develop quantative calibrations on powder constituents including Amoxicilin and Acetaminophen ."

Acid Number in Polyester - Request Additional Information

"Polymer acidity is an important parameter to monitor, as excess acidity can lead to undesirable reactivity, due to increases in acidic end groups. A common measurement of acidity is an Acid Number test (ASTM D664 / D974 / D1534 / D3339 tests.) Acid Number measurement is defined as the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize 1 gram of substance, in this case polyester. These titration techniques are time-consuming and introduce human error into the measurement. Furthermore, it cannot be implemented online or in process. In this study, LT-NIR was used to determine acid number with a rapid, non-destructive, 30 second scan. The results indicate a successful application of LT-NIR for this measurement with strong correlation to the ASTM method."

Hydroxyl Number in PolyEthylene Glycol (PEG) - Request Additional Information

"Hydroxyl number is an important property monitored in the quality control of polyols such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Hydroxyl Value is a measure of free –OH groups and therefore is an indicator of Molecular Weight and thus degree of polymerization. The traditional test (ASTM E1899 / D4274 / D1957 or similar) involves a titration that is time-consuming, and unable to be implemented online. Faster and simpler methods for measurement as well as a method that is easily implemented online would be beneficial in improving process controls. This study demonstrates the use of near-infrared (NIR) analysis to monitor the Hydroxyl Number in samples quickly and easily."

Acid and Hydroxyl Number in Polymers - Request Additional Information

"Hydroxyl number and Acid number are two critical properties monitored in the quality control of polyols. Traditionally, they are determined through wet chemistry titration methods. Faster and simpler methods for measuring these values as well as a method that is easily implemented online would be beneficial in improving process controls and efficiency. This study demonstrates the use of near-infrared (NIR) analysis to monitor the Acid Number and Hydroxyl Number in polyols quickly and easily."

Polymer Additives - UV Stabilizer and Antioxidants - Request Additional Information

"In the production of polymers, various chemical additives can be included to influence polymer properties. Two common categories are antioxidants and UV Stabilizers which are added to improve polymer durability. In this study, an IsoChem analyzer was used to measure the additive levels of polymer pellets at room temperature with no sample preparation. The method greatly simplifies testing procedures while maintaining accurate measurements. Furthermore, this method can be applied in inline analysis (either of polymer melts or pellets) for real time monitoring and control."

Carbon Fiber Density Measurement - Request Additional Information

"Carbon fibers are an important component in composite materials often acting in reinforcement due to their very high strength to weight ratio. Density is an important parameter in carbon fiber production and as it provides a great deal of information about the extent of conversion and the properties of the end product. Therefore, a rapid, nondestructive measurement is desired, as is one that can be implement directly online. In this study, LT-NIR is investigated for both of these advantages."

NIR Study of Silicone Chemistry - Request Additional Information

"Silicones are polymers that include Silicon (Si) atoms with organic C, H, N, and O and other atoms. They vary widely in chemistry, composition, properties and usage. LT-NIR can be a useful technique for analyzing silicones. While Si is transparent to NIR radiation, the functional groups such as C-H, C=O, O-H, N-H, C=C-H, are NIR active. These functional groups give the silicones their special properties. The high resolution NIR analysis allows for PPM-level measurement of their concentrations. In this study, silicones were analyzed for levels of vinyl (-CH2=CH3) and Hydride (–H) concentrations. Results were quite positive, indicating a good application of the technology."

Polymer Viscosity Meaurement - Request Additional Information

"Viscosity is an important parameter in polymer science. Knowing the intrinsic viscosity, one can gain insight into the properties of the polymer (molecular weight, etc.) In this study, an IsoChem analyzer was used to measure the intrinsic viscosity of polymer pellets at room temperature with no sample preparation. Compared to melt viscosity or solution viscosity tests, the method greatly simplifies testing procedures while maintaining accurate measurements. Further application of this method can be in inline analysis (either of polymer melts or pellets.)"

Inline Hot Melt Measurement at the Extruder in Polymer Production - Request Additional Information

"When implementing analytical instrumentation on the ends of melt extruders, robustness and low maintenance is required. The conditions of the sample are not conducive to many technologies and one must be selected that can withstand those conditions. One such technology is Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy. The LT-NIR IsoChem analyzer is easily applied to extrusion applications, with dramatic results. This allows for online real time analysis and improved process control."

Passive Monitoring of Energetic Material Production - Request Additional Information

"Energetic Materials, used in pyrotechnic, explosives and related applications contain a large amount of chemical energy that can be released. The composition of such materials is an important property that should be frequently monitored. Incorrect formulation can lead to unpredictable or dangerous results. Further complicating testing are the sensitivity of these materials to heat, pressure and impacts. For these reasons, LT-NIR was investigated for monitoring such products. In this study, an IsoChem Thermal-NIR System with an extruder probe and an IR Camera was set up directly in process. The system continuously took measurements of product composition and temperature. These results were integrated into control systems to ensure safety in manufacturing these compounds."

OrganoChloride Monitoring with NIR - Request Additional Information

"OrganoCloride compounds are found throughout the chemical industry in a variety of applications often as precursor chemicals. Benzal Chloride, for instance, is a common precursor chemical for Benzaldehyde. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C5Cl6) was previously used in the production of fertilizers, until it was deemed a pollutant. It is still used as a precursor chemical for flame retardant products. Knowledge of these chemical concentrations is critical to process monitoring and control as well as final product quality testing. Additionally, the composition of waste streams can be measured, which is useful for environmental studies. In this study, an IsoChem Analyzer was used to measure several liquid samples of C5Cl6, C5Cl8 and Benzal Chloride Levels. The results indicate a successful application of LT-NIR."

Phosphate Production Analysis - Request Additional Information

"“Wet process” production of phosphate fertilizer involves treating rock phosphates (raw material) with acid to produce concentrated phosphoric acid as P2O5. Knowing the phosphate concentration is critical to fertilizer quality and knowledge of how the process is performing. In this study, several samples of wet phosphate were scanned with an IsoChem Analyzer to measure P2O5 and acid (H2SO4) levels. The results indicate a successful application of LT-NIR in this industry."

Semiconductor Wet Chemical Analysis - Request Additional Information

"In semiconductor wet processes chemical concentrations must be monitored to ensure effective use. Process NIR systems such as the LT Industries IsoChem can be used to measure the concentrations of acid and basic solutions such as the standard clean (SC-1 and SC-2) solutions. Online monitoring of acid baths and chemical recycling operations leads to more efficient processes, less industrial waste and great cost savings – all while keeping solutions within required specifications. In this study, solutions from a two major semiconductor manufacturers were analyzed with an LT-NIR IsoChem Spectrometer to determine their concentrations."

Food Quality Parameters in Mayonnaise - Request Additional Information

"Food quality parameters such as Fat, Moisture, pH, Salt, and Acid are critical to ensuring product falls in specifications. In the process of producing mayonnaise these properties control texture as well as flavor and are important to ensure optimum quality and improved yield. This requires close monitoring, and is best achieved with rapid, operator independent methods to increase testing efficiency and accuracy. Standard laboratory methods are time-consuming, more complex, and have per-measurement costs. LT-NIR provides a faster and simpler method for measuring these critical properties. This study reports on the use of LT-near infra-red (LT-NIR) analysis to monitor these properties in mayonnaise."

Online Measurement of Vegetable Oils - Request Additional Information

"The market for Vegetable Oils is continuously growing with both increased worldwide demand and additional uses. Oils from soy, palm, rapeseed, olives and several other sources find usage not only in cooking, but also in consumer products (such as soaps and cosmetics) and, more recently, as feedstocks for biodiesel. These oils are composed of Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fats, with the exact composition varying based on the oil source used. Knowing the fat composition is essential to determining oil characteristics and chemical behavior (for example oils with a high degree of unsaturated fats are susceptible to oxidative deterioration.) LT-NIR analysis can provide fast, accurate determination of fat contents in laboratories or online for material identification, process control, blending or end product analysis. In this study, online analysis of fat composition was implemented in a large-scale facility"

NIR Measurement of Dextrose Equivalent and Dissolved Solids in Corn Syrup - Request Additional Information

"Corn Syrups are widely used as a sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages. Two key parameters of interest in their quality are Dextrose Equivalent (DE) and Dissolved Solids (DS) In this study, the effectiveness of using NIR to measure these properties is illustrated. The results are positive, exhibiting strong correlations and low errors of prediction. LT-NIR analysis can be used online to control processes and operate more efficiently. It can also be used to monitor final product quality to ensure it conforms to specifications."

Measurement of Dextrose, Fructose and AO in HFCS product - Request Additional Information

"High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) is an important ingredient widely used in as a sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages. HFCS is produced in two different grades: 42% and 55% fructose. In this study, the effectiveness of using NIR to measure syrup composition is illustrated through analysis of these two products. The results are positive, exhibiting strong correlations and low errors of prediction. LT-NIR analysis can be used online to control processes and operate more efficiently. It can also be used to monitor final product quality to ensure it conforms to specifications."

Measurement of Iodine Value in Edible Oils - Request Additional Information

"Iodine value is used to quantify the degree of unsaturation of Edible Oils, making it an important quality parameter. Traditionally, this is measured via titration, which is time consuming, operator dependant and has per-measurement costs. LT-NIR analysis can provide fast, accurate determination of edible oil quality parameters in laboratories or online for material identification, process control, blending or end product analysis. In this study, LT-NIR benchtop analysis proves to be an effective measurement tool for iodine value."

Online Measurement of Alcohol, Gravity and Calories in Beer Production - Request Additional Information

"Beer standardization, blending a beer to precise gravity and alcohol requirements is critical to consistent product quality. In this study, samples for 5 different kinds of beer were analyzed online for a major beer producer. Models for Alcohol, Original Gravity and Calories were developed using the LT Industries Complete Beer Analysis (CBA) System. These models were used for continuous monitoring and control of blending in real time. The Analyzer allows for quantitative analysis of these key quality parameters and process control in real time using non-invasive, non-destructive Near Infrared technology."

Measurement of Brix and Acid in Juice Production - Request Additional Information

"In the production of beverage products brix and acid levels play key roles in product quality and flavor. Producers of juices, syrups, carbonated beverages, wine and honey need to pay attention to these concentrations. The LT Industries IsoPharm allows both quantitative and discriminate analysis of these key parameters using non-invasive, non-destructive Near Infrared technology. This technology can be implemented both in quality laboratories and directly online, providing high speed measurements of process parameters. In this study, brix and acid levels are measured online, in process with LT-NIR."

Tea Formulation Analysis - Request Additional Information

"The blending of tea products involves a stringent quality testing process requiring the tea to be taste tested against standards. This process is time consuming and can be very operator dependent. In addition, the capability of the tester can be compromised by excessive tasting or tasting of certain harsh flavors. The LT Industries’ Tea Formulation Analyzer provides a very fast and repeatable method for testing of tea quality. Since the test is non-destructive the same sample that is tested can be stored, and since no sample preparation is required the measure is very easy and fast."

Determination of Total Ginsenosides in American Ginseng by LT-NIR - Request Additional Information

"American ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius) is one of the top five medicinal herb sellers in North America, with total market of around one hundred million dollars per year. The main active ingredients of American ginseng are ginsenosides, and their concentration in different samples of roots and extracts can vary. LT Industries’ Phytoscan spectrophotometer allows both quantitative determination of total ginsenoside concentration and qualitative analysis of different types of ginseng."

Measurement of Fragrance Chemicals - Request Additional Information

"The fragrance industry utilizes thousands of chemicals to create their many products. In order to ensure high quality, formulations should be consistent which requires total lifecycle monitoring, from raw material receipt through processing and mixing. This Study shows the feasibility of monitoring constituents of fragrances in process streams, distillation columns, formulation vessels or final products. The studies are based on samples scanned in process. The GC values were correlated to and used to model various properties in a number of product components.The measurement of Fragrance components shows many strong applications with correlations that are very reliable. This measurement is ideally suited for online integration where it can provide process control information greatly reducing over processing and out of specification production."

Online Monitoring of Milk Fat, Solids and Protein - Request Additional Information

"In-process monitoring of Fat, Protein and Solids is a valuable tool for controlling high value creams in blending as well as ensuring a consistent product formulation. In this study, LT Industries measured several milk samples online for the determination of these properties. The results were quite positive and can provide a great deal of benefit to dairy producers"

Measurement of Kerosene and Diesel Fuel Properties with NIR - Request Additional Information

"Quality measurement of fuels involves measurement of key properties such as Cloud Point, Distillation points, Aromatics, Density and Cetane Number. ASTM tests are the standard methods for measuring these properties; however they are time and resource intensive. A rapid, accurate method for analyzing many samples quickly is highly desired. In this study, a Parafuel analyzer was used to measure various properties of kerosene and related fuels (diesel, jet fuel, etc). This method greatly simplifies testing procedures while maintaining accurate measurements. The results indicate an excellent application of LT-NIR technology and a strong potential for online measurements. Laboratory and online applications allow for better control of quality monitoring throughout the refining process."

Measurement of Asphaltene Precipitation - Request Additional Information

"Asphaltene precipitation is an expensive problem for Oil Producers, Transporters and Refiners. Precipitation can be induced via solvent addition, changes in temperature, pressure, or blending of crudes. Damage to pipes, pumps, heat exchangers and other equipment can be extremely costly due to replacement and production stoppages. The Parafuel Analyzer from LT Industries can be used to measure the Asphaltene Precipitation point with an easier and more accurate method than laboratory tests. In this study, the Parafuel Analyzer is used to measure Asphaltene precipitation under the presence of various solvents. The measurement is automatic and provides results instantaneously."

Online Measurement of Gasoline Properties - Request Additional Information

"Production of petroleum products such as reformulation of gasoline fuels requires close monitoring of a number of different parameters, such as Octane Number, RVP, Aromatics, Olefins, Benzene, etc. In order to assure optimum yield and throughput, these parameters have to be monitored continuously and accurately. Online measurement of these properties has several advantages: instantaneous results, reduced lab time, and control-loop schemes to control blending based on real time property measurements. In this study, hydrocarbon classes such as Octane levels (RON and MON), individual species and physical properties were measured online to control gasoline blending. This real time control helped the plant generate significant savings through reduced Octane giveaway and improved product quality."

Lubrication and Metalworking Oil Measurement - Request Additional Information

"Lubrication oils are used in nearly all heavy industries. Measuring their properties is a high value measurement for both producers and end users. Producers wish to check that their oils meet specifications, while consumers may wish to measure contaminant levels so that they can effectively use and reuse oils. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters for lube oil quality. In this study, an IsoChem analyzer was used to measure the viscosity of lube oils from a major manufacturer and oil additives and contaminants at an end user facility. The same analyzer made in-process measurements in an oil recycling operation. In all cases, the Analyzer performed the required measurements successfully."

Bitumen and Water in Oil Sands - Request Additional Information

"The mining of oil sands has steadily increased over the years as rising oil prices have lead to so-called “nonconventional” plays becoming profitable. Bitumen in oil sands is either blended with crudes or upgraded. However, the composition of oil sands varies from formation to formation, making profitability assessments challenging. Furthermore, processing oil sands required accurate compositional information. Therefore a fast, simple, but accurate measurement method of bitumen, water and solids in oil sands is highly desirable. In this study, several oil sands samples were analyzed by a Parafuel Crude Oil Analyzer."

Measurement of Soap in Petroleum Lubricants - Request Additional Information

"In this study, LT-NIR was used to monitor soap levels in petroleum based lubricants. Soap levels are a key to lubricant quality and impart characteristics such as viscosity. This study illustrates the viability of NIR analysis for their measurement"

Measurement of Crude Oil Properties - Request Additional Information

"Crude Oil is a broad term applied to hundreds of extracted hydrocarbons, each with their own unique properties. Knowing these properties is critical as the product moves from the well to the refinery. Optimization of crude transport, distillation and processing relies on knowing the key properties of this substance. This analysis is useful for such areas as: Incoming Crude Identification, Supplier Validation, Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) Optimization, Crude Sweetening, Preventing Asphaltene Deposition and Crude Blending In this study, a Parafuel Crude Oil analyzer was used to several properties of crude oil samples. The Parafuel’s quick and accurate analysis makes it an ideal choice for both laboratory and process analysis."

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